Wednesday, 31 October 2012

Installing Debian unstable safely with APT pinning

Using Aptitude to easily list and install backported or unstable packages

Early into my linux Debian web server administration, out of necessity and after a lot of trail and error and reading I worked out the right preferences that keeps my systems very stable and yet with the ability to install the occasional backported or unstable package. My package management utility of choice is `aptitude` but these settings will also effectively work for `apt-get` and before I begin do +1 this if you find it useful.

The above shows the available version of Django with their respective APT pinning numbers: 990 being the stable version and selected by default when installing, 400 being the backported version, 300 being an unstable version, and 100 pinning for our already installed version.

During normal installation the stable default is always selected, however now I also have an option to easily see other available versions by viewing the package details. Based on the displayed pinning I can tell any backported versions and the unstable version available and review the potential conflicts it could create in a straight forward way.

Setting it all Up

There are four things that need to be edited, the default pinning release needs to be set, the sources need backports and unstable added, lowering the pinning priority of backports/unstable packages, and the aptitude display settings needs to be modified to display pinning.

Apt::default-Release

Create a ' /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10defaultrelease' and make it's contents as follows:
Apt::default-Release "stable";
.

Update package `sources.list`

Edit your /etc/apt/sources.list to add unstable and backports sources so it looks something like this:

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.0 _Squeeze_ - Official Multi-architecture amd64/i386 NETINST #1 20110205-14:45]/ squeeze main

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main

deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main

# squeeze-update, previously know as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main

# squeeze backports
# http://backports.debian.org/Instructions/
deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports main

# unstable
# http://wiki.debian.org/AptPreferences
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ unstable main
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ unstable main

# non free ex. sun java
#deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze non-free
#deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ squeeze non-free

Edit `etc/apt/preferences` pinning file

If the file doesn't exist do create it, if it does modify it to add lower pinning the default 500 for unstable and backports packages as follow:

# Package pinning priorities
# See http://wiki.debian.org/AptPreferences and http://manpages.debian.net/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=apt_preferences
#
# In nut shell highest PIN gets installed
#
# Pining default are as follow which are in addition to our settings:
#   990 - for version that are not installed but DO belong to our `APT::Default-Relase "stable"` setting.
#   500 - for versions that are not installed and do not belong to the target release
#   100 - for packages that already installed, this also means other versions of same package
#     1 - for experimental packages; packages with "NotAutomatic: yes"


Package: *
Pin: release n=squeeze-backports
Pin-Priority: 400

Package: *
Pin: release a=unstable
Pin-Priority: 300

Add pinning information to Aptitude

By default Aptitude does not display any pinning information however this can be changed and once done a pinning number will be displayed when one view the package details, add the following file `/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/`:

Aptitude::UI::Package-Display-Format "%c%a%M %p %Z %v %V %i";

That's it. It is worth pointing that this setup has worked for me over the past 3.5 have years without any issues

It is even able to handle a scenario where a previously installed unstable is upgraded to a stable backported higher version correctly as can be seen with the above example of the Django package.

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